Chained To Nuclear Weapons
SOCIAL & POLITICS COLLIDED
“A country cannot simultaneously prepare and prevent war.”
The majority of people in America are working class citizens. They are the teachers, clerks, administrators and factory workers. They are also the true value producers in our communities. These men and women have made America what it is. They are the integrity in the structure and the people of America have been the one’s that have sustained this Nation from day one.
They bear most of the burdens in life, and yet create the enormous wealth of this country. Every day they keep our industries and commerces profitable.
They are the heart and soul of their workplace and their communities, yet they live in fear of poverty because they have no say in the management of the industries and companies they work for…
There is a subject I want to write about, yet I find it hard to express the depth of my indignation at the cruelty being perpetrated in our name. A cruelty so vile and so viceous that it is the most degrading of all crimes. There is ample evidence that American officers have again and again brutally mishandled conscientious objectors. They have frequently beaten defenseless men with whips and douched them with cold water from power hoses until they fainted. They had these men woken up, during the night, every 2 hours. They had them chained by their wrist to the bars of their cells for 9 hours a day. They jabbed them with bayonets and continued these practices and far worse untill some of their victims died.
The Secretary of Defense has dismissed commissioned officers from our army for such offenses, thus admitting the accusations. The World newspaper has published accounts of these outrages, for months, distinguishing itself by systematically protesting against these abominable atrocities. Other publications such as the Liberty Digest have aided in the good work too. The president of the American bar association, declared that our military laws and methods of administering military justice were unworthy of the name of law and justice.
He went on to say “Punishments (by courts martial) are not only grossly harsh, as compared with the penalties imposed for similar offenses by our criminal courts, but they also differ widely. The same offense can be punished in one court martial by 25 years in a penitentiary and in another by just 6 months in disciplinary barracks. A boy overstayed his leave, yielding to a natural impulse to go home for Christmas and was charged not with “absence without leave“, but with desertion.
Newspapers and Periodicals, Espionage Law June 29, 1917
“If a thousand women and men were not going to pay their tax bill this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would to pay them, and enable the state to commit violence and shed innocent blood.”
There were a lot of things happening in the early 1900s. New laws were being made, and constitutional laws were being amended. But there is no law in existence that requires you to pay income tax. So why does a government continue to take 35% of your paycheck, and why for four months of the year do you commit yourselves to this unconstitutional Federal income tax!
Well, let’s break it down like this…
1. The cost overruns on 50 current major weapons systems, more than $110. Billion [That equals out to be the 20 year cost of Solar devices and energy conservation equipment in commercial buildings, saving more than 3.7 million barrels of oil per day.]
2. The cost of two nuclear powered aircraft carriers, more than $5.8 Billion… [That equals out to the cost of converting 77 Oil using power plants saving more than 350,000 barrels of oil per day.]
3. The cost of nuclear warheads programs, more than $5. Billion and that was back in the 80′s. Can you imagine! It’s quadrupled! [That more than equals out to the cost of rehabilitating New York City’s sewer system and about 5 more major municipal cities.]
The dissolution of the “American Federation of Labor” would benefit the labor movement in this country and the international labor movement in general. Why? In the first place, is it organized on sound principles? It holds that there can be a partnership between capital and labor. Think it over! A partnership between the exploiters and the exploited! Between the buyer and the fly! Between the lion and the lamb! Between the cat and the mouse!
Newspapers and Periodicals, The Union News August 6, 1918
Nothing is more profitable than war. In order to conduct a war or build a military, the government requires two chief resources. Soldiers and money! People are drafted through the selected Service System and money is drafted through the Internal Revenue Service. This spending has taken its toll and millions of innocent lives.
Racism is promoted by a society which glorifies military domination. War is the moral and cultural deterioration of all human societies. There are people in countries around the world today that still suffer from the effect of war. How long before there is an all out nuclear exchange between the superpowers, are you ready to suffer the effects….
Most Americans do not believe that killing or the threat to kill is an acceptable way to solve social or political problems. In fact, to pay someone else to kill while refusing to do it yourself lacks integrity. That’s not the American way! So it makes you wonder why Americans even pay for something they don’t believe in…
Consider the fact that anyone preparing for war is violating international laws and contributing to the breakdown of a just social order.
The American Plutocracy is troubled by a guilty conscience. It growls and withers in search of new methods to fight the spreading of sedition. It feels that the moment the American working people know the truth about their rotten democracy, they will shake off the burden of prejudices and see the American reality for what it really is.
When that day comes it will be unable to evade the rigorous judgment of the people. It trembles at the thought, for it knows that there is no other place in the world, where million dollar fortunes can be accumulated as rapidly as in America. No other place has organized exploitation been placed on so high a pedestal, and with such open cynicism, as in the land of the golden calf.
The animal fears, mainly, that it will lose the privilege of unceasing plunder in the new winnowing of the general populace. The American founders fear their own shadows. A mere spark appears to them as a flame of revolutionary conflagration. How, if not by this, can we explain the ungovernable range of the American Courts and lawlessness which prevails behind prison walls. What about that really genial system of secret services which has penetrated every pore of our national life.
What about espionage, deportation from within the limits of democratic United States, the Overman and Lusk committees, searching for sedition even in such well aiming institutions as the Rand school, and the persecution of the press. What about the lawmaking of the state assembly, issuing laws as if it came from the horn of plenty. Let us, for instance, consider this law making. In dozen of states, we have already passed truly monstrous laws.
Newspaper and Periodicals,Chicago Illinois, December 16, 1919
We have tried everything, held protests and signed petitions. No more wars! Yet the government is spending more and more every year. You cannot ear mark money you send to the IRS and say please spend this only on non military things and expect they will do that. Furthermore, if the money not sent to the IRS is routed by the register into community programs, they will have a much greater positive effect, having not been whittled down by a huge bureaucracy.
Knowing the history of our own country far better than do the capitalist apologist and their dupes, we know that true and genuine Americanism recognizes and proclaims the right of the people. In the words of Lincoln, ‘To amend or overthrow their government whenever they grow weary of it”. As sensible men, we perceive that the capitalist system cannot function any longer, that it is now not only dying but already dead. It has long ago ceased to have any justification for existence, and that the foul odor of its unburied corpse is creating a pestilence.
Newspapers and Periodicals, The Industrial Union News March 13, 1920
Wether the United States is engaged in war, paying the interest on past wars or in preparation of future war, your federal income tax is funding war. The basic logic here is that any money you pay, in part goes to war and the military. How much of your money? Based on current and past military spending, for the last few years, it has varied between 50% and 60% of one’s income taxes.
There are a lot of different kinds of taxes, and not all are federal income taxes. So which are the war taxes? Taxes can be Federal, state, or local in origin. They can be in the form of income tax, customs duties, sales tax, social security and property taxes. The closest state or local taxes get to being war taxes’ are through their contributions to the National Guard, which amounts to very little of state budgets. State and local taxes usually manifest themselves in the form of sales taxes, and property taxes.
In some States, a few cities also have income taxes. Federal taxes are the war taxes, but no single Federal tax goes directly to any war effort, they are mixed. Some Federal taxes do not contribute to military spending even in part. Those are the trust funds. Trust funds are, in theory, collected by the Federal government, held in trust, eventually to be spent specifically on what they were collected for. The largest trust is the Social Security Trust Fund, contributions to which are removed from each paycheck as FICA [Federal Insurance Contribution Act].
The Airport Trust fund, which is the state tax collected on air travel and the highway trust fund, which is collected as a tax on each gallon of gasoline. All collected taxes which do not go into trust funds, contribute to military spending. These taxes are spent as Federal funds. The largest such tax is the individual income tax, which makes up over 2/3 of all Federal funds. Other taxes which contribute to military spending are corporation income taxes, tobacco, alcohol, telephone, estate and gift taxes, and custom duties taxes.
Savings bonds, which used to be called war bonds, are a means for the government to borrow money from people for Federal programs, such as military programs. Obviously everything which comes under the Department of Defense is a military or war expenditure. Federal spending is also contained within some other departments or agency headings, known as the defense function! Currently there is spending within the department of energy for nuclear weapons and in the Dept of Transportation for the coast guard. The CIA spends on selective Service System.
The Federal emergency management agency spends on civil defense, the General Services administration, on stockpiling critical materials for wartime, intelligence community staff, and funds appropriated to the president for military assistance to foreign countries while military satellites are part of the NASA budget.
In other words, some departments serve several functions. For example, the department of agriculture can be split into a health category, income security category [food stamps], and a natural resources and environment category, international category, and of course an agricultural category. Most of what is allocated to the department of treasury is really for repaying interest on the national debt. But what is really important here is how much of the taxpayer dollars are going towards funding war. To more accurately reflect this spending let’s consider the pie. You’re giving over 50% of the pie to the Federal government and supporting war.
How much longer before there is no valid distinction drawn between giving someone a gun for murder and giving someone the money to buy a gun for murder. In either case, if it is known that a crime will be committed so an accomplice is just as guilty. Weapons of mass destruction have no purpose but to destroy human life. International treaties are the supreme law of the land. Individual accountability for such destruction will be a war crime.
It’s unrealistic to suggest that American citizens should wait to find out the legality of current military preparation for war. International law will be establishing criminal responsibility and Americans are well aware of the activities of the United States. Disobeying a law because it is a violation of your conscience and or religious beliefs, is not in any way civil disobedience. It is immoral to pay someone to do what would be immoral to do yourself.
If you feel compelled by your conscience to stop contributing to the preparations for mass murder. Then by all means know your constitutional rights.
What follows is a brief review of the basic constitutional arguments used in tax resistant court cases. Some resistors however, ignore constitutional arguments and rely solely on political or moral arguments.
The First Amendment…Congress shall make no law representing an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…For those people whose religion forbids participation in war, this amendment clearly protects their right not to pay tax which support war.
The Fifth Amendment…No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness, against him or herself…This amendment has had two primary uses for war tax’ resisters, to justify not giving information on income tax returns, and to refuse or resist to cooperate with any legal proceedings against them, because of their intention not to pay.
The Ninth Amendment…The enumeration in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people…More tax resisters claimed that the listing of specific rights in the constitution for the people, does not mean that the people are not entitled to various other rights, just because they are not specifically listed. In particular the right to refuse or resist participation in war,[e.g., by refusing to pay war taxes’].
In contracting to enter into a state of society, the people collectively, and the person individually, only that best themselves of those natural rights which they expressly relinquish by enumeration. That this fundamental proposition of natural rights was of primary importance to the framers of the constitution, is evident from the attention given the concept at the time.
In a letter to Jefferson, Madison wrote, the rights of conscience, in particular, if submitted to public definition, would be narrowed more than they are likely to be by an assumed power. Thus Madison clearly stated that those unremunerated rights under the ninth amendment are or include the rights of conscience.
From the history of the adoption of the ninth amendment it is clear that it can be viewed as the constitutional affirmation of unremunerated rights as well as a rule of construction stating that the enumeration of some rights does not deny others. For example, the right of conscience not to kill or pay for killing, is retained by a person when he or she enters into a state of society.
Such rights are absolute and thus cannot be abridged by any qualifying courts made test, such as has been the case with the first amendment. They are not subject to any judicial qualifications and extend to the payment for killing just as to the killing itself.
It is absurd to think the government would pass a law prohibiting murder but not convict someone of murder who paid for a murder to be done by another person. The power to tax, obviously, is not absolute. It is a power delegated to the government, and as such it is qualified.
The ninth amendment however is absolute and is not to be exercised by the government but by the individual. Therefore the ninth amendment takes precedence over article 1, section 8 taxing power of the United States.
The fourteenth amendment…No state shall make or enforce any law which shall…deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws…Conscientious objection to war in any form is protected by the universal military training and service act, but not by the internal revenue code.
Articles VI of the constitution…All treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, Shall be the supreme law of the land…Since international treaties are the supreme law of the land, registers argue that they are refusing war taxes’ on the basis of the following treaties…
United Nations charter, article I, section 2…All member nations agree’ to develop from a relations among nations based on respect for the principles of equal rights and self determination of peoples.
United Nations charter, article II, section 3…All member nations agree to settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice are not endangered.
United Nations charter, article II, section 4…All members shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state.
The Nuremberg Principles… These principles on the scope of individual responsibility in the face of the legal activities by a government. The three principals relevant to individual responsibility are as follows.
II. The fact that internal law does not impose a penalty for an act which constitutes a crime under international law does not relieve the person who committed the act from responsibility under international law.
IV. The fact that a person acted pursuant to order of his government or of a superior does not relieve him from responsibility under international law provided a moral choice was in fact possible to him.
VIII. Complicity in the commission of a crime against peace, a war crime, or a crime against humanity as set forth in Principle VI is a crime under international. Principle VI, which defines crimes against peace and war crimes, states: the crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under international law:
(i) Planning, preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression or a war in Violation of international treaties, agreements for assurances;
(ii) Participation in a common plan or Conspiracy for the accomplishment of any acts mentioned under (i).
Violation of the laws or customs of war which include, but are not limited to, murder, ill-treatment or deportation to slave labor, or for any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory, murder or Ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns, or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity.
Nashville Lawyer, Fyke Farmer, was the first to use the Nuremberg Principles in his refusal to pay taxes on his 1949 income. In 1958 the Supreme Court refused to hear his case, which had gone against him in lower courts. Section 7852(d) of the internal revenue code, also affirms the fact that international treaties are the supreme law of the land.
Freedoms of political expression, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press, are important characteristics like equality and freedom. It’s what we identify as representative of a democracy. Equal before the law, and having equal access to power. We must keep these political powers from having too much power over the people, such as the separation of powers and becoming undemocratic. We have rights and civil liberties which are protected by a constitution.
Your income tax is funding war and future wars. Money is drafted for the military by the IRS. This is unethical and immoral. You should refuse or resist to pay this tax! Now, how do you go about resisting this tax…The ‘war tax’.
You simply fill out your return according to IRS rules and then refuse/resist to pay. Always include a note of explanation of why you are refusing to pay. Obviously this method has no value unless there is a tax due. This form of tax resistance of course bypasses the audit division and goes straight to the collections division of the IRS.
Another method is to fill out your 1040 return normally, down to the second to the last section, after calculating the tax. Then use the line which reads the ‘amount paid’ with form 4868, and insert ‘an alternative fund’. As a result you will show no tax or a smaller tax due. A letter of explanation with your return might of course be desirable 🙂
Again another method is to attach the schedule ‘A’ form to your 1040 form. Complete that under miscellaneous deductions, take a war tax’ deduction large enough to reduce your taxes to zero and of course include a letter of explanation 🙂
Then there is also the ‘war tax credit’. You fill out your return up to and including figuring the tax. In the two credits sections of your return, enter the amount of tax you wish to refuse or resist, calling it a “war tax credit”, and then cross out one of the other credit lines. Of course, again don’t forget to include a letter of explanation.
The IRS will consider that the ‘war tax credit’ is a mathematical error and send it straight to the collections division. You can also claim extra dependents, using this as your main method. You may have to experiment into getting the proper number of dependents needed, in order to resist paying war tax’.
The Fifth Amendment return is one of the most popular methods of nonpayment, particularly among right-wing tax resistors. All you have to do is simply write on every line that requires monetary information the words ‘Fifth Amendment’. Then at the bottom, explain that to supply information, might or could result in self incrimination. Then of course sign and date your return 🙂
If you’re self employed, you’ve got it made 🙂
The IRS audit and appeals process…Courtesy of: People Pay for Peace…
As an American citizen, instead of being scared of an audit or the threat of an audit, look at it as your opportunity to tell the government how you feel. The possibility of an IRS audit creates fear and trembling in most Americans. However to many war tax’ resisters, an audit is an opportunity to communicate their views to the government.
In order to take advantage of the appeals process, war tax’ registers generally have to use the word tax deduction method. After what may be a long and tedious process of appeals, you should expect your return will eventually get to the collections division. So why bother with the audit division at all. Many war tax’ resisters find it adventurous to use this process for its educational and conscientious raising potential.
Also collections are delayed throughout the whole process, which may last up to three or four years, and the system is gummed up for a while. If you’re 1040 or 1040A is pulled for examination, you will receive a formal letter from the IRS setting up an appointment. The purpose of appointment is to seek additional information to verify or correct your tax.
The appointment will generally involve a polite discussion with the auditor about your claims..Following the department report of individual income tax examination, all changes containing adjustments to your return will be sent to you. If you do not accept the findings of the report, you have 15 days from the date of the report to request another discussion where you will be expected to submit additional information, or have a hearing with a member of the office of regional directors of appeals.
The IRS may disallow the hearing if they feel your reasons for disagreement do not come within the scope of the internal revenue law. For example, disagreement based solely on moral, religious, political, constitutional or similar grounds.
If you do not respond within 30 days, your case will be processed on the basis of adjustment shown in the examination report. Whether or not you take advantage of these appeals and notices of deficiency, within 90 days a letter will eventually be issued by the IRS.
You have 90 days from the date of this notice to file a petition with the United States tax court. After losing there, you can go to the U.S. Court of appeals and into the U.S. Supreme Court. After you have exhausted the appeals procedures or if you do not petitioned the tax court within 90 days, the IRS will send you a final assessment of tax dating form 4188.
If you do not pay within 10 days, your file will be sent to the collections division. The collections division will have six years from the date of this assessment to collect the tax. If they do not succeed in that period of time, the tax is no longer due and cannot be collected. If you file your return showing a tax due, and you refuse/resist to pay it, and the IRS accept your return as filed, then the collection division has six years from the filing date to collect.
Normally the IRS has three years from the date of filing in which to begin the process of examination. But if they do not challenge it within this period, the returned stands as filed. If your return contained false or fraudulent information, or if you did not file a return, there is no time restriction on when the IRS can begin the dissemination. However once a final assessment has been made. That collection division still only has six years to collect.
You can go to tax court with or without a lawyer. If you’re go without a lawyer, the first step is to write or call the U.S. tax court 400 second street, NW, Washington, DC 20217, addressing the clerk of the court. Ask for a copy of the current rules of practice and procedures because you have a case coming up.
After you get the rule book, you must decide whether your case will be a small tax case or not. If the amount in dispute is over $5000 the case cannot be conducted as a small tax case, but if it is less you have this option. If you do choose the small tax case route, you have waved your right of appeal to higher courts, and the decision made will not serve as a precedent.
Next you will need to file a petition explaining why you want to be in tax court. You must adhere rigidly to time limits set for submission of various documents. You have exactly 90 days. from the date mailing of the IRS notice of deficiency, until the date of filing with the tax court.
If you are late you cannot have your case heard by tax court. You can make a motion to extend the time limit, and the court will grant time from good reason, but it cannot do so for the petition. It is also important to send all items certified mail with a return receipt requested.
After petition has been filed by the tax court with a copy to the IRS, the IRS has 60 days to file an answer or 45 days to make a motion. When you get the answer, you may submit a reply, for which you have another 30 days. There are other possibilities for other kinds of motions.
It is quite possible the tax court will not allow any oral statements or presentations of witnesses. Eventually you will have a time set for your hearing.
In these cases the IRS has determined that what exists is only a ‘matter of law’ not a ‘matter of fact’. That is, there are no disputed facts, for example mathematical differences, only a question as to whether one may take a deduction for this purpose.
The tax court considers it irrellevant, whether you sent your refused taxes to a worthy cause. They are usually means for a judgment on the pleadings, summary judgment or for a motion to dismiss. This means that all things’ being admitted, you have no case because there is no such war tax’ deduction or credit.
It is the policy of the tax court not to hear the evidence [because there are no matters of fact] and only to hear your argument. You may file a brief explaining your argument in writing. Invariably the government’s motion as described is granted and you find yourself out of the tax court with a right of appeal to an Appellate Court.
The Appellate Court rarely decides in favor of the tax court regardless of constitutional arguments.The Appellate Court holds that the constitutional requirements do not take precedence over the IRS regulations, because the constitutional rights of the first and other amendments are not absolute. This position however seems to assume that the IRS code is absolute!
Further if your arguments are not based on religious reasons, but political reasons, you will run into issues called ‘standing’ and ‘justifiability’ which means that as an ‘individual’ taxpayer relying on political arguments that [e.g. Nuremberg Principles or international law] you cannot bring such a case at all.
If you lose and want to appeal, you must file a notice of appeal within 90 days with the Appellate Court. If you lose at the Appellate Court level you have 90 days to file a writ of certiorari with the U.S. Supreme Court. This writ need not be granted and up to this point has not been.
Contact the center on law and pacifism for any counseling you need if you go to tax court. Some resisters have chosen not to use the court at all. So in addition to going into court, the choice always remains to refrain from using these legal institutions which protect the military and militarism. The center on law and pacifism councils and supports either choice.
Just another interpretation of:
In every stage of these Oppressions We havePetitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. Tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule, For declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.erected a multitude of New Offices, Officers to harass our people, has refused the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
Let me ask you something’, if you read and understood this declaration to be what it really is…Independence from an over-powering, governing system that was governing the people. Would you think that the word “majority rule” was a privilege that means the people in civil society decide what is best for the people or do you think that representatives in a political rule-making institution of creating laws for the people they are governing over constitutes the “majority rule”?
If “majority rule” is some kind of “checks and balance” with-in a body of government that has divided it’s self but is still part of the whole Institution. Than who are the “minority” who’s right and freedom need protecting from policies.
Institutions created by people produced a collective human choice that keeps the power out of individual intention. The people are the “majority rule”, The people are the ones that keep the checks and balances. Because the people are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable. The constitution clearly reveals the nature of the governing institution by limiting their powers with-in the different branches. Meaning a more perfect union amongst themselves in-order to establish justice. The first Article of the constitution is the guaranteed power of impeachment.
Almost all of the Article’s and Amendment’s are a series of rules and regulation alternating power back and forth which means deliberately and intentionally government when not checked and balanced by the people who instituted them becomes destructive, the people being more disposed to suffer. than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. Is the reason the people have the full measure of moral virtues through practical wisdom, practical judgment, rational choice, and experience. This not only gives the people the perfected ability to make right decisions, they are also endowed with prudence indeed.
Institutions that are able to make a paper currency with certain value, and then induce millions into cooperative production and trade in pursuit of an economic ends. Is an institution of nothing morally and ethically good. There is only one strong influential group and they make policies that bind us by laws.
They determine who gets what, when, and how. They take words like “Just” and “War” then put them together “Just War theory” in-order to take the decision whether to go to war away from you, and make it an act of congress that is then billed to you…
My Name Is…kasperay